During the dry period of January to June, it typically dries up north of Khartoum. The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. wet period. The growth of the current Sahara began about 6,000, Dorothy Middleton, 'Baker, Florence Barbara Maria, Lady Baker (1841–1916)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years – 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773, https://web.archive.org/web/20070110025022/http://www.egyptattraction.com/nile-river-egypt.html, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/hampshire/4864782.stm, "River Discharge into the Mediterranean Sea: Climatology and Aspects of the Observed Variability", "Pinpointing the sources and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the world", Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say, "The Quest for Cooperation in the Nile Water Conflicts: A Case for Eritrea", "What's the Blue Nile and the White Nile? The Nile River has an average depth of 26 to 36 feet. The Nile River is actually 6695 kilometers (4184 miles) long. These basins were not interconnected until their subsidence ceased, and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill and connect them. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great"), and comes from the same ancient name. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. The Nile is the area's natural navigation channel, giving access to Khartoum and Sudan by steamer. It's only recent that the first known navigation team successfully followed the river from beginning to i… They recount that they paddled through two war zones, regions notorious for bandits, and were arrested at gunpoint.[83]. [60] Peret was the growing season, and Shemu, the last season, was the harvest season when there were no rains.[60]. However, a scientific expedition found the Amazon is actually 105 kilometres longer than the Nile, with a total length of 6,800 kilometres. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river. When the Nile floods it leaves a rich silty deposit which fertilizes the soil. The Blue Nile connected to the main Nile during the 70,000–80,000 years B.P. It rises south of the Equator and flows northward through northeastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile River is a famous river that is located in Northeastern Africa. In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic it is called an-Nīl. It flows north for some 130 kilometers (81 mi), to Lake Kyoga. Delta . [15], In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī (Hapy) or Iteru, meaning "river". [36] During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70 percent and 90 percent of the total discharge from the Nile. Europeans had been resident in Ethiopia since the late fifteenth century, and one of them may have visited the headwaters even earlier without leaving a written trace. It is the largest river by volume, and its basin is home to the Amazon Rainforest, the world’s richest and most-varied biological reservoir. The average flow of the White Nile at Lake Kawaki Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m3/s (32,600 cu ft/s); the peak flow is approximately 1,218 m3/s (43,000 cu ft/s) in October and minimum flow is about 609 m3/s (21,500 cu ft/s) in April. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Nile is about 100 miles longer than the Amazon. Cambridge University Press. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. [27] The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation and evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. [55], The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile, the Atbara and the Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.[56]. Sudan steamer traffic was a lifeline as few railways or roads were built in that country. [20] Another derivation of Nile might be related to the term Nil (Sanskrit: नील, romanized: nila; Egyptian Arabic: نيلة‎),[16] which refers to Indigofera tinctoria, one of the original sources of indigo dye;[21] or Nymphaea caerulea, known as "The Sacred Blue Lily of the Nile", which was found scattered over Tutankhamen's corpse when it was located in 1922. Their 9-month journey is described in the book Kayaks down the Nile. The name Nile is derived from the Greek Neilos (Latin: Nilus), which probably originated from the Semitic root naḥal, meaning a valley or a river valley and hence, by an extension of the meaning, a river. Nile river facts. 1. Nile mud is black enough to have given the land itself its oldest name, Kem or Kemi, which also means “black” and signifies darkness. Though their expedition included others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to complete the entire journey. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. More than half of the Nile's water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration. answered 7 years ago. In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ, pronounced piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic), means "the river" (lit. It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long and runs through a total of ten countries. Even in some of the regions in which the average rainfall is sufficient for cultivation, marked annual variations in precipitation often make cultivation without irrigation risky. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each day as he crossed the sky. The behavior that would have resulted given the inflow data was modeled. It winds from Uganda to Ethiopia, flowing through a total of nine countries. An anabranch river, the Bahr el Zeraf, flows out of the Nile's Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile. View of the River Nile, from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt. There was a problem. about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) 200. Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. The Nile River is the longest river in the world which is about 7,088 km long. The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. The Nile River is 6,650 kilometers long. Salama suggested that during the Paleogene and Neogene Periods (66 million to 2.588 million years ago) a series of separate closed continental basins each occupied one of the major parts of the Sudanese Rift System: Mellut rift, White Nile rift, Blue Nile rift, Atbara rift and Sag El Naam rift. After this came regular steam navigation of the river. It was published in full only in the early twentieth century, although it was featured in works of Páez's contemporaries, including Baltazar Téllez,[66] Athanasius Kircher[67] and by Johann Michael Vansleb.[68]. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands, but no European of antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana. The Nile runs for 4,258 miles throughout Africa. The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. The calculations were enabled by accurate monthly inflow data collected for 50 years. This is known to be the longest river in the world, and it is also a north−flowing river, which makes it a bit different from all of the other rivers that you can find in the world. Owing to their failure to penetrate the sudd wetlands of South Sudan, the upper reaches of the White Nile remained largely unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. During the dry season the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m3/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river. As the Nile was such an important factor in Egyptian life, the ancient calendar was even based on the three cycles of the Nile. The Amazon might also be the world’s longest river—depending on whom you ask. The river is the lifeline of South Sudan and Egypt. With British Forces in Egypt in the First World War and the inter-war years, river steamers provided both security and sightseeing to the Pyramids and Thebes. The Nile is considered the world's longest river and flows through 11 countries. The Nile stretches 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers). Water buffalo were introduced from Asia and the Assyrians introduced camels in the 7th century BC. Abridged illustrated edition, as The Story of the White Nile (Harper & Row, 1967), Moorehead, Alan, "The Blue Nile" (Hamish Hamilton, 1962; revised and illustrated edition, 1972). It flows through the following countries: Kenya, Eritrea, Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia. Ideally, such international agreements should promote equitable and efficient usage of the Nile basin's water resources. Corrections? (1911). Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Nile" . Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while traveling with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great lakes. According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around 170 million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost. [22], Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river". Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, romanized: an-Nīl, Arabic pronunciation: [an'niːl], Bohairic Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ Pronounced [pʰjaˈro],[4] Nobiin: Áman Dawū[5]) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. These seasons, each consisting of four months of thirty days each, were called Akhet, Peret, and Shemu. It takes approximately three months for the waters near the town of Jinja, Uganda (the point where the Nile leaves Lake Victoria), to reach the Mediterranean Sea. The White Nile was even less understood. The Blue Nile River is 994 miles (1,600 km) long. 200. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile often exceeds 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in late August (a difference of a factor of 50). Flowing northward through the tropical climate of eastern Africa and into the Mediterranean Sea, the river passes through 11 countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, … "Τηθὺς δ᾽ Ὠκεανῷ Ποταμοὺς τέκε δινήεντας, Robert J. Stern, Mohamed Gamal Abdelsalam: The Origin of the Great Bend of the Nile from SIR-C/X-SAR Imaginary. The availability of water from the Nile throughout the year, combined with the area’s high temperatures, makes possible intensive cultivation along its banks. The Nile is a river in Africa. Along the stretch of the Nile north of Khartoum, which is sometimes called the United Nile, two parts can be distinguished. p. 693. According to one theory on the evolution of the Nile system, about 25,000 years ago the East African drainage to Lake Victoria developed an outlet to the north, which sent its water into Lake Sudd. The Bahr al Ghazal's drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile's sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometers (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m3/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands. ", "Remarkable Events in the Life of the River Nile", Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, "Big Canal To Change Course of Nile River", "For Thousands of Years, Egypt Controlled the Nile. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices. Major river in Africa and the longest river in the world, Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization, Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea. Due to the tectonic uplift of the Nubian Swell, the river is then diverted to flow for over 300 km south-west following the structure of the Central African Shear Zone embracing the Bayuda Desert. Updates? Nile River, Arabic Baḥr Al-Nīl or Nahr Al-Nīl, the longest river in the world, called the father of African rivers. With the accumulation of … [77] Countries including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about Egyptian domination of its water resources. The Nile River is approximately 4,100 miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of discharge. The river is a major transport source particularly true during the flooding where travel by road is not available in many places along the river. Better find a map of Africa and check it out for yourself. 300. [76] From the 70 incidents of drought which took place between 1900 and 2012, 55 incidents took place in Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya and Tanzania. It is thought that approximately 30 million years ago the early Nile, then a much shorter stream, had its sources at about 18° to 20° N latitude. The standard English names "White Nile" and "Blue Nile", to refer to the river's source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. How long is the Nile River? The most distant stream emerges from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda, via the Rukarara, Mwogo, Nyabarongo and Kagera rivers, before flowing into Lake Victoria in Tanzania near the town of Bukoba. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The construction of the Aswan dam has largely ended this natural inundation. At Al Dabbah it resumes its northward course towards the first Cataract at Aswan forming the 'S'-shaped Great Bend of the Nile[37] already mentioned by Eratosthenes.[38]. It flows over six groups of cataracts, from the sixth at Sabaloka just north of Khartoum northward to Abu Hamed. The waterways from a fan-shaped area of fertile mash-land called a _____. 2. First Ring Road Bridge (Moneeb Crossing), Moorehead, Alan, "The White Nile" (Hamish Hamilton, 1960; revised and illustrated edition, 1971). 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